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It’s the holidays. A time when family and friends, and even neighbors, gather together.
And nothing brings neighbors closer together than class action residential construction defect litigation.
In Kohler Co. v. Superior Court, Case No. B288935 (November 14, 2018), the Second District Court of Appeal addressed whether neighbors can bring class action lawsuits under the Right to Repair Act. For those who are regular readers of the California Construction Law Blog you’re familiar with the Right to Repair Act codified at Civil Code sections 895 et seq.
For those of you who aren’t here’s a short history. In 1998, in Aas v. Superior Court (1998) 64 Cal.4th 916, the California Supreme Court held that economic damages arising from construction defects, say a defective roof (as opposed to damage to your holiday gifts as a result of water damage resulting from the defective roof), are not recoverable if the basis for liability is negligence (e.g., faulty workmanship) or strict liability (e.g., defective materials).
To limit the application of the Aas case to newly constructed residential housing, including single family homes and condominiums (but not condominium conversions), the California legislature enacted SB 800 also known as the Right to Repair Act. The Right to Repair Act permits homeowners of newly constructed residential housing to sue for economic damages alone if new residential construction does not meet certain enumerated construction standards set forth under the Right to Repair Act and the homeowner satisfies the pre-litigation procedures of the Act.
One aspect the Right to Repair Act does not clearly address, however, is if homeowners can join together and bring a class action lawsuit under the statute.
Kohler Co. v. Superior Court
In Kohler, two homeowners, Joanna Park-Kim and Maria Cecilia Ramos, filed a lawsuit against Kohler Co. on behalf of themselves and others similarly situated throughout California. The plaintiffs alleged that “Rite-Temp Pressure Balancing Valves” and “Mixer Caps” manufactured by Kohler, which are used to regulate water flow and temperature in household plumbing, were “corroding, failing, and/or will inevitably fail” and violated the construction standards of the Right to Repair Act. Kohler sold approximately 630,000 of these valves and mixer caps in California during the relevant period.
While the case was pending, Kohler filed a motion claiming that the Plaintiffs could not bring a class action lawsuit under the Right to Repair Act. The trial court denied Kohler’s motion but certified its ruling for appellate review finding that the issue presented a controlling question of law upon which there were substantial grounds for differences of opinion.
The Appellate Court Decision
On appeal, the Second District Court of Appeal focused on Section 931 of the Right to Repair Act, which provides that, when construction defect claims combine causes of action or damages that are not covered under the Right to Repair Act (i.e., construction defects that are not among enumerated construction standards of the Act) with other claims involving construction defects that are covered by the Act, that those defects that are covered by the Act are to be administered according to the Act (i.e., the pre-litigation procedures of the Act). Specifically, Section 931 provides:
If a claim combines causes of action or damages not covered by this part, including, without limitation, personal injuries, class actions, other statutory remedies, or fraud-based claims, the claimed unmet standards shall be administered according to this part, although evidence of the property in its unrepaired condition may be introduced to support the respective elements of any such cause of action. As to any fraud-based claim, if the fact that the property has been repaired under this chapter is deemed admissible, the trier of fact shall be informed that the repair was not voluntarily accepted by the homeowner. As to any class action claims that address solely the incorporation of a defective component into a residence, the named and unnamed class members need not comply with this chapter.
Describing Section 931 as “somewhat obtuse,” the court noted that while the inclusion of the term “class actions” in the first sentence implies that class actions cannot be brought under the Right to Repair Act, the last sentence of the section that “any class action claims that address solely the incorporation of a defective competent into a residence” suggests that certain class actions might be able to be brought under the Act.
Looking to the legislative history of the Right to Repair Act, the Court of Appeals held that class actions may not be brought under the Right to the Repair Act, “with one very narrow exception.”
The Court of Appeal referred to a Senate bill analysis of SB 800 discussing the pre-litigation procedures of the Right to Repair Act, which stated: “The bill establishes a mandatory process prior to the filing of a construction defect action. The major component of this process is the builder’s absolute right to attempt a repair prior to a homeowner filing an action in court. Builders, insurers and other business groups are hopeful that this right to repair will reduce litigation.” The Court concluded that “it makes sense” that “the Legislature intended to exclude class actions for virtually any claim under the Act, because class actions make prelitigation resolution impossible.” Moreover, held the Court:
Even if the named plaintiffs bringing a class action comply with the prelitigation process, thus giving the builder of their homes an opportunity to attempt to repair whatever defect is claimed as to their homes, the builders of other homes are given no such opportunity with respect to the unnamed class members, thus thwarting one of the most significant aspects of the Act.
However, held the Court of Appeal, Section 931 does carve out one narrow, or, as the Court stated, one “very narrow” exception to the Right Repair Act. And that is claims that solely involve the incorporation of a defective component into a home.
And, here, because the plaintiffs’ claims against Kohler alleged that the defective valves and mixers violated several of the enumerated construction standards set forth under the Right to Repair Act causing damage to other components in their homes, the Court of Appeal held that their claims did not solely involve incorporation of a defective component in their homes, and further, involved an allegedly defective manufactured product that is excluded under Section 896 of the Right to Repair Act, which excludes “any action seeking recovery solely for a defect in a manufactured product located within or adjacent to a structure.”
“In short,” held the Court of Appeal, the Right to Repair Act “does not permit class action claims except when those claims address solely the incorporation into the home of a defective component other than a product that is completely manufactured offsite.”
So there you go. Something for everyone this holiday season. Kind of.
Kohler Co. clarifies that, with one very narrow exception, class action lawsuits cannot be brought under the Right to Repair Act. Furthermore, while the Court did not directly address what constitutes a “defective component other than a product that is completely manufactured offsite,” it would seem that this is indeed, as the Court of Appeal stated, a very narrow exception that would exclude class action claims involving most manufactured products except products built in whole or in part at a project. Maybe I’ve had too much eggnog, but I can’t even imagine what those types of products might be.
And to wish you and yours a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year I share with you one of my holiday favorites: